Select a Topic From the List Below:

  1. Glasses, Contacts - Where'd They Go? 

  2.     The History of Refractive Surgery

  3.     The History of Cataract Surgery

  4. Lessons from the Practice-The Gift of Sight

  5. So What's All This Talk About Laser Vision Correction?

  6. LASIK

  7. Intraocular Lens

  8. Cataract

  9.     Topical Anesthesia

  10.     Clear Corneal Incision

  11.     Phacoemulsification

  12.     Insertion of the Lens

  13.     The Lens in the Capsule

  14. Are You at Risk for Glaucoma?

  15. Computers and Eye Strain

  16. "FLOATERS" A Common Eye Problem

  17. The Eye and How It Works

  18.     When Should You Get Yours Eyes Examined?

  19.     The Eye Examination

  20.     Questions About How Your Eyes Do What They Do

  21.     Why Do We Require Reading Glasses After We Turn Forty?

  22.     Will Wearing Eyeglasses Make My Eyes Dependent Upon Them?

  23.     Do Wearing Contacts Slow Down the Deterioration in My Vision?

  24.     If I Need to Keep Changing Eyeglasses are My Eyes Getting Worse?

  25. What is Amblyopia or "Lazy Eye"?

  26. When Should a Child's Eyes Be Examined?

  27. If My Child's Eyes Are Crossed, Will He Grow Out of It??

  28. If I Need to Wear Eyeglasses Will My Child Need Them Too?

  29. Do Eye Exercises Really Help?

  30. What About Pinhole Eyeglasses, Do They Improve Your Vision?

  31. What About Those Lenses that Block Out Blue-Light?

  32. Can Ophthalmologists Transplant an Eye?

  33. What are Corneal Transplants?

  34. Questions About KeratoRefractive Vision Correction Procedures

  35.     Why Am I Dependent Upon Eyeglasses?

  36.     What is Myopia or Nearsightedness?

  37.     What is Hyperopia or Farsightedness?

  38.     What is Astigmatism?

  39.     How Can I Reduce or Eliminate My Need for Glasses and Contacts?

  40.     Am I A Suitable Candidate?

  41.     Tell Me About The Procedure

  42.     What Can I Expect After Laser Vision Correction?

  43.     How Can I Find Out If I Am A Good Candidate?

  44. The Eye Examination

  45. The History of Modern Cataract Surgery


  47.     The Basics

  48.     Technological Breakthroughs

  49.     Do I Need Cataract Surgery?

  50.     Questions and Answers About MicroIncision Cataract Surgery

  51. Diseases of the Retina

  52. MACULAR DEGENERATION (ARMD) and The Role Of Nutrition

  53.     Determining the Nutritional Content of Vegetables

  54.     Risk Factors For Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

  55.     What You Can Do to Limit Your Risk of Developing AMD

  56.     What to Do To Maximize Your Vision With AMD

  57.     Who to Call For Low Vision Devices

  58. Diabetic Retinopathy

  59. Retinopathy of Prematurity

  60. The Red Eye

  61. What is a Pterygium or Pinguecula?

  62. DRY EYES

  63.     How Can I Tell If I Have Dry Eye?

  64. Beware of Sun Exposure

  65. Systemic Diseases and Your Eyes

  66. LASERS

  67.     What is a Laser?

  68.     Are Lasers Safe?

  69.     How Long Does the Laser Treatment Take?

  70.     How Does Dr. Kershner Aim the Laser?

  71.     Will The Laser Treatment be Painful?

  72.     What Will I Experience During the Laser Treatment?

  73.     What If I Move My Eyes or Close My Eyelids?

  74.     Will My Vision be Blurred Following the Laser Treatment?

  75.     Do I Take My Regular Medications on the Day of the Laser Treatment?

  76.     Where Will The Laser Procedure Take Place?

  77.     Will I Be Able to Drive Myself Home?

Intraocular Lens

When the clouded lens of the eye is removed during cataract surgery, a replacement for the human lens is needed to restore focus to the eye. This implant is called an intraocular lens (IOL). The first foldable intraocular lenses were implanted in 1984, These lenses revolutionized cataract surgery because they could be folded and injected into the eye through a tiny incision. At the time of surgery, your doctor will determine which intraocular lens is best suited for you.


©Stephen F. Gordon. Used with Permission.


The lens is the primary focusing mechanism of the eye. As we age, this crystal clear lens becomes cloudy and yellow and loses its elasticity, or ability to change focus. When this occurs, it is called a cataract. Cataracts should be removed when they begin to affect your daily lifestyle. When glare and blur interfere with driving, or you give up your favorite hobby, it is time to consider having surgery.

©Stephen F. Gordon. Used with Permission.

Topical Anesthesia

Topical anesthesia is administered as the name implies, onto the surface of the eye, using drops. It offers many benefits to patients, but perhaps none is so evident as the elimination of needle-block anesthesia, which can be associated with swelling, bruising, discomfort, and potential trauma to the eye. With topical anesthesia, the patient is comfortable but still maintains the ability to move their eye and eyelids, so no patch is necessary allowing a person to begin using their new vision immediately after surgery.

©Stephen F. Gordon. Used with Permission.

Clear Corneal Incision

In clear corneal cataract surgery, a tiny incision is made into the perimeter of the cornea. This incision provides a tunnel through which the cataract is removed and the intraocular lens is implanted. It is the architecture of this incision that makes it self sealing, thus requiring no stitches.


The most modern method of removing a cataract is through the use of phacoemulsification. The phacoemulsifier is an ultrasonic probe which vibrates 40,000 times per second. It breaks up a cataract into tiny microscopic pieces which are emulsified and gently aspirated out of the eye. This method of cataract removal is considered the least traumatic to the eye, and requires the smallest incision.

Insertion of the Lens

A specially designed injector, much like a syringe, is used to implant the foldable intraocular lens. The injector is inserted through the clear corneal incision, over the iris, and into the center of the pupil. There, the lens is slowly ejected where it expands and unfolds into position.

©Stephen F. Gordon. Used with Permission.

The Lens in the Capsule

Situated in the same capsule which once housed the natural lens of the eye, the unfolded intraocular lens restores focus after cataract surgery.

Interested in Learning More?  CLICK Here.

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*Individual results may vary. Persons over the age of forty are more likely to require glasses for reading. Sunglasses may be necessary when out of doors. As with all surgical procedures, there is no assurance or guarantee as to the outcome of the procedure.

This website is intended for educational purposes only.  It is not a substitute for medical advice from a physician.  Use of this site constitutes an agreement with the user that releases Eye Laser Consulting, Eye Laser Center and Robert M. Kershner, MD, FACS from any and all liability. 

Eye Laser Consulting
Robert M. Kershner, M.D., M.S., F.A.C.S.

Boston, Massachusetts, USA


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Robert M. Kershner, MD, MS, FACS
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